勐拉168娱乐官网

1990年1月,他在公开发表的讲话中竟然宣称:我认为实行多党制不会是悲剧,我们不应该像魔鬼怕烧香那样害怕多党制。他主动配合领导、老师的工作,整顿班风、学风,加强着班级的团结协作,安排部署学生会的各项工作,积极热情地为同学们服务。

VI. Twentieth Century  二十世纪

1. Britain and the First World War
英国和第一次世界大战
The Word War I was fought from 1914 to 1918 primarily between two European Power blocs: “the Central power”. Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the “Allies”, Britain, France and Russia. During the war, the Britain lost much. Apart from the loss of manpower, there had been considerable disruption of the economy and society. Out of the war settlement came the establishment of the league of Nations.
第一次世界大战是从1914年至1918年,战争主要在两大欧洲集团间进行:“同盟国”,包括德国和奥匈帝国,和“协约国”,包括英国、法国和俄罗斯。一战中英国损失惨重。除了劳动力损失,还有巨大的经济与社会瓦解。在战后的安定阶段国际联盟成立。
3. Britain and the Second World War
英国与第二次世界大战
(The Second World War was fought from 1939 to 1945. Britain declared war on Germany in 1939. German bombing raids destroyed many cities in England. Britain was great impoverished by the war)
As Adolf Hitler and Nazism showed off their aggressive momentum in Europe, Chamberlain, the Prime Minister, found his policy of appeasement of German aggress更多的人拥到澳洲。1901年,六个自治领统一为一个自治领—澳大利亚独立联邦。
New Zealand became a separate colony of Britain in 1841, achieved self-government in 1852, became a dominion under the British crown in 1907 and was made completely independent in 1931.
1841年新西兰成为独立殖民地
,1852年实现自治,1907年成为英皇属下的自治领,1931年完全独立。
1. The Conquest of India
征服印度
The establishment of British East India Company established in 1600 was a case of economic penetration. By 1819 the British conquest of most India was almost complete. After the muting of Bengal army in 1857, the control of India passed to the British Crown and Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1877.
1600年英国东印度公司的建立堪称典型的经济渗透。到1819年英国对印度的征服已基本完成。1857年东印度公司孟加拉军队的当地士兵发动兵变后,1858年印度改由英国君主统治。1877年维多利来女王正式成为印度女皇。
2. The Scramble for Africa
对非洲的掠夺
At the beginning of the 19th century British possessions were confined to forts and slave trading posts on the west coast. Over the 19th century the interior of Africa was gradually discovered and colonized by Europeans. Britain led the way in the race. Apart from the colonies in the South and West, Britain was also involved in the North East in Egypt and the Sudan.
19世纪初英国的占领地局限于西海岸的堡垒和奴隶交易点。整个19世纪欧洲人逐渐发现并殖民了非洲内陆。在这场瓜分竞赛中英国占了较大的优势。除了不断扩张的南部和西部殖民地后,英国又凯觎东北的埃及和苏丹。
3. Aggression against China
侵略中国
In 1840, the Opium War broke out between Britain and China. Since then, Britain gradually invaded many coastal areas and imposed a series of unequal treaties upon China.
1840年英国对中国发动了鸦片战争。从那时起,英国逐渐侵略了中国的许多沿海城市,并签定了一系列不平等条约。
勐拉168官网国家概况精讲系列(十四) Chapter 14

VI. Twentieth Century  二十世纪

1. Britain and the First World War
英国和第一次世界大战
The Word War I was fought from 1914 to 1918 primarily between two European Power blocs: “the Central power”. Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the “Allies”, Britain, France and Russia. During the war, the Britain lost much. Apart from the loss of manpower, there had been considerable disruption of the economy and society. Out of the war settlement came the establishment of the league of Nations.
第一次世界大战是从1914年至1918年,战争主要在两大欧洲集团间进行:“同盟国”,包括德国和奥匈帝国,和“协约国”,包括英国、法国和俄罗斯。一战中英国损失惨重。除了劳动力损失,还有巨大的经济与社会瓦解。在战后的安定阶段国际联盟成立。
3. Britain and the Second World War
英国与第二次世界大战
(The Second World War was fought from 1939 to 1945. Britain declared war on Germany in 1939. German bombing raids destroyed many cities in England. Britain was great impoverished by the war)
As Adolf Hitler and Nazism showed off their aggressive momentum in Europe, Chamberlain, the Prime Minister, found his policy of appeasement of German aggression was no longer tenable, and was forced to declare war on Germany on September 3,1939.
第二次世界大战是从1939年至1945年,当阿道夫希特勒及纳粹主义显示他们对欧洲的侵略意图时,首相张伯伦发现他对德国倾略所采取的绥靖政策已站不住脚,被迫于1939年9月3日对德宣战。
4. Postwar Britian
战后的英国
At the general eiection of 1945 Winston Churchill was heavily defeated.The electorate returned a Labour government. The war hastened (加快) the end of Britain’s empire and its former colonies won independence one after another. Brtain joined in several wars against other countries. The 1960s were the Swinging Sixties(摇摆的60年代),the permissive age (宽容的时代). The foundations of the welfare state (福利国家) was laid in these years. In the 1980s, Mrs Thatcher started the privatization policy. Britain joined the European Economic Community in1973.) 温斯顿。邱吉尔在1945年的大选中惨败。全体选民选举了工党政府。战争加快了大英帝国的灭亡,她的殖民地相继独立。英国参与了与其他国家的几个站长。1960年是摇摆的60年代,性解放的年代。在这些年中已发展成为一个福利国家。20世纪80年代,撒切尔开始了她的私有化政策。1973年,英国加入欧共体。
(1) One of the most far-reaching consequences of the War was that it hastened the end of Britain’s empire.
二战最为深远的结果之一是加速了大英帝国的瓦解。
(2) In 1952 Princess Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth II. Many people through television saw the ceremony.
1952年伊莉莎白公主加冕成为伊莉莎白女王二世。新发明的电视使许多人看到了加冕仪式的过程。
(4) In January 1973, Britain became a full member of the European Economic Community which was still called the Common Market in 1973. Britain witnessed the first oil embargo in 1973.
1973年1月,英国终于成为欧洲经济共同体的正式成员国。1973年仍称为共同市场。1973年英国经历了第一次石油禁运。
(5) Thatcherism
撒切尔主义
Thatcherism referred to the policies put forward by Margaret Thatcher, the first woman prime minister in England in 1979. The main contents of her policies included the ①return to private ownership of state-owned industries, ②the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, ③the weakening of trade unions the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and ③an emphasis on law and order. To some extent her program was successful and she led one of the most remarkable periods in the British economy. She resigned (辞职) in 1990.
1979年玛格丽特.撒切尔成为英国第一任女首相。她提出的政策被为“撒切尔主义”。其内容包括国有工业私有化,采用货币主义政策以控制通货膨胀,削弱工会的影响,加强市场因素在经济中的作用,强调法律和秩序。在一定程度上讲,她的计划是成功的。她领导英国经济度过了一段最繁华的时期之一。1990年她辞职。

第七章

Government and Administration
英国政府机构
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, the head of state is a king or a queen. The United Kingdom is governed, in the name of the Sovereign by His or Her Majesty’s Government. The System of parliamentary government is not based on a written constitution, the British constitution is not set out in any single document. It is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. The Judiciary determines common law and interprets statutes.
联合王国是君主立宪制国家,国家的首脑是国王或女王。联合王国以君的名义,由国王或女王陛下政府治理。英国的议会制度并不是基于成文宪
法,英国宪法不由单一文件构成,而由成文法,习惯法和惯例组成。司法部门裁定习惯法或解释成文法。
Constitutional monarchy 君主立宪制
The British monarchy is known as constitutional monarchy. It means the monarchy’s power are limited by law and Parliament. The monarchy actually has no ral power. Constitutional monarchy began after the Glorious Revolution in 1688.英国的君主体制是以君主立宪闻名的。君主政体实际已无实权。它的权力受限于法律和议会。君主立宪制是从1688年的光荣革命后开始。

I.The Monarchy君主制

1.Elizabeth II, her title in the United Kingdom is “Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Her Other Realms and Territories, Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.
伊莉莎白二世,她的全称是“伊莉莎白二世承蒙大布列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国以及她的其他领土和领地的上帝之恩典,女王,英联邦元首,共同信仰的保护者。”
2.The Queen is the symbol of the whole nation. In law, She is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces and the “supreme governor” of the Church of England. She gives Royal Assent to Bills passed by parliament.
女王是国家的象征。从法律上讲,她是行政首脑,立法机构的组成部分,司法首脑,全国武装部队总司令,英国国教“至高无上”的领袖。她任命首相和重要的政府官员。对议会通过的法案给予御准。

III.Parliament 议会

1.The United Kingdom is a unitary, not a federal, state. Parliament consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
英国是中央集权国家,而不是联邦制国家。议会由君主,上议院和下议院组成。
2.The main functions of Parliament are: (1) to pass laws; (2) to provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government; (3) to examine government Policy and administrations, including proposal for expenditure; and (4) to debate the major issues of the day.
议会的主要作用是:(1)通过立法;(2)投票批准税为政府工作提供资金;(3)检查政府政策和行政管理,包括拨款提议;(4)当天的议题辩论。
The House of Lords 上院
The House of Lords is made up of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal.The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of Canterbury and Yord and 24 senior bishops of the Church of England.The Lords Temporal consist of 1) all hereditary peers and peeresses of England,Scotland,Great Britain and the United Kingdom(but not peers of Ireland);2)life peers created to assist the House in its judicial duties;3)all other life peers.The main function of the House of Lords is to bring the wide experience of its members into the process of law-making.上院由神职人员和世俗议员组成。神职包括坎特伯雷和约克大主教及24名高级主教。世俗议员包括1)所有英,苏,大不列颠及联合王国的世袭贵族,女贵族(但不包括爱尔兰);2)协助议院司法工作的终身贵族;3)其他终身贵族。上院的主要作用就是集中议员集体经验智慧制定法律。
The House of Commons 下院
The House of Commons is elected by universal adult suffrage and consists of 651 Members of Parliament (MPs).It is in the House of Commons that the ultimate authority for law-making resides.下
院议员由成人普选产生,共有651名议员。最高立法权掌握在下院手中。
1)  Parliamentary Electoral System议会选举制
A General Election must be held every five years and is often held at more frequent intervals.British citizens,together with citizens of other Commonwealth countries and citizens of the Irish Republic resident in Britain,may vote provided they are 1)aged 18 or over,2)included in the annual register of electors for the constituency,and 3)not subject to any disqualification.A candidate must deposit 500 pound.大选每5年一次,且经常不足5年就举行。英国公民包括其他英联邦国家公民和爱尔兰共和国在英国的居民都有选举权。选举条件1)18或18以上,2)选区全体选民的每年选民登记册上登记注册者 3)有资格参选者。候选人必须交纳500英镑保证金。
2)The Political Party System政党体制
Since 1945 either the Conservative Party or the Labour Parth has held power.自1945年以来,一直由保守党或工党轮流执政。
Chapter 9第九章
Social Affairs英国社会

III. Religion 宗教

1. Everyone in Britain has the right to religious freedom with out interference from the community or the State. (He may believe in any church or none at all.) He may change his religion at will may manifest his faith in teaching, worship and observance. Except that the Lord Chancellor may be a Roman Catholic, public offices are open without distinction to members of all churches or none.
在英国,人人都有信仰宗教的权利,社会和政府不得干涉。他可以随意改变宗教信仰,可以在布道,礼拜和仪式中表明他的信仰。除了大法官不可以是罗马天主教徒外,公共职务对各种信仰或没有信仰的人一律公开。
2. Established churches国教
There are two established church in Britain: in England the church of England and in Scotland the (Presbyterian) Church of Scotland.
英国有两大国教,在英格兰是英格兰国教,苏格兰是苏格兰教会(长老教)。
3. Church of England is uniquely related to the Crown in that the Sovereign must be a member of that Church and as “Defender of the Faith”. The Church is also linked with the State through the House of loads. The church of England is not free to change its form of worship, as laid down in the Book of Common Prayer without the consent of Parliament.
英格兰国教与君主有独特的联系。因为君主作为“国教的捍卫者”必须是此教会的一员,他在登基时必须承诺维持国教。国教还通过上议院与国家联系起来。没有议会同意,英格兰教会不可随意改变“国教祈祷书”中规定的礼拜仪式。
4. The government of the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, that is, government by ministers and elders, all of whom are ordained to office. The Monarch is normally represented at the general assembly by the Lord High Commissioner.
苏格兰教的管理时长老制,也就是由教士和长老治理。他们被授予圣职,王室高级代表通常代表君主光临会议。
5. Unestablished churches
非国教教会
There are include: the Anglican Churches(圣公会),the Free Churches(自由教会);(the largest of the Free Churches – the Methodist Church 最大的自由教会—卫
理公会),the Roman Catholic Church(罗马天主教)。

IV. Festival and Public Holidays
节假日

1.Christian festivals 基督教节日
The Christian festival of the year and Christmas, Easter, and Whit Sunday.
其主要的节日有圣诞节,复活节,圣灵降临节
Christmas day, December  25th, celebrates the birth of Christ, and it is the greatest of Christian festivals. Easter celebrates the Resurrection (复活) of Christ. Easter is traditionally associated with the eating Easter eggs.Whit Sunday (圣灵节) celebrates the coming of the Holy Spirit to Christ’s apostles seven days after his death, and it is on the seventh Sunday after Easter.圣诞节,12.25,纪念耶稣的诞生,是最盛大的基督教节日。复活节是庆祝基督的复活。复活节有吃复活节彩蛋的习惯。圣灵节是庆祝基督去世7周后,重新降临到他的使徒们中间,在复活节后第7个周日。
2.Other festivals 其他节日
Britain’s other festivals include New Year’s Day, Gy Fawkes Day (篝火节), April Fools Day(愚人节), Mother’s Day and the Remembrance Day (Armistice Day)