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对美国贸易代表办公室7月10日发表的《关于301调查的声明》,中华人民共和国商务部12日发表声明如下:

China's Ministry of Commerce (MOC) released a statement Thursday regarding the Statement by the US Trade Representative on Section 301 Action released on July 10. The following is the full text of the statement.

一、美方污蔑中方在经贸往来中实行不公平做法,占了便宜,是歪曲事实、站不住脚的。美方出于国内政治需要和打压中国发展的目的,编造了一整套歪曲中美经贸关系真相的政策逻辑。事实上,美国社会经济中的深层次问题完全是美国国内结构性问题造成的,中国经济的成功从来不是对外推行“重商主义”的成功,从来不是实行所谓“国家资本主义”的成功,而是坚定推进市场化改革和不断扩大对外开放的成功。第一,关于“中美贸易不平衡”问题。美方称对华存在大量贸易逆差,其数字是被高估的,且主要原因不在中国,而在于美国国内储蓄率过低以及美元发挥着国际主要储备货币的职能,在于产业竞争力和国际分工差异,也在于美方出于冷战思维,对自身享有比较优势的高科技产品出口实施人为限制。第二,关于所谓“盗窃知识产权”问题。中国政府已建立了相对完整的知识产权法律保护体系,并不断发挥知识产权司法保护主导作用,推进设立知识产权法院和专门审判机构。2017年,中国对外支付的知识产权使用费达到286亿美元,比2001年加入世贸组织时增长了15倍之多。第三,关于所谓“强制技术转让”问题。中国政府没有对外资企业提出过此类要求,中外企业的技术合作和其他经贸合作完全是基于自愿原则实施的契约行为,多年来双方企业都从中获得了巨大利益。第四,关于“中国制造2025”等产业政策。在市场经济条件下,中国政府实施这些政策主要是指导性、引领性的,并且对所有外资企业都是开放的。具有讽刺意义的是,美国自身在农业和制造业都存在大量补贴。

I. The slander of the United States against China about gaining extra advantage through unfair trade practice is a distortion of facts and hence is groundless.

For the purpose of meeting its political need at home and containing China, the US side produced a whole set of policy logics that distorted the truth of China-US economic and trade relations. As a matter of fact, underlying problems in the American economy and society are purely caused by domestic, structural reasons in the United States. The success of the Chinese economy has never been a success of practicing mercantilism outside China or the success of practicing the so-called state capitalism. Rather it is a success of the commitment to market-oriented reform and continuous opening-up. First, China-US trade imbalance. The US side claims that it has massive trade deficit with China, but its number is over estimated, and the main reason for the deficit does not lie on the Chinese side. Rather it is because saving rate in the United States remains low, the US dollar serves as international reserve currency, and the two countries differ in industrial competitiveness and international division of labor. Besides, the United States, due to its cold-war mentality, imposes restrictions on the export of hi-tech products which has comparative advantage. Second, the so-called theft of intellectual property. The Chinese government already put in place a full-fledged legal system to protect intellectual property rights, allowed judicial system to play a leading role in IPR protection, and promoted the establishment of IPR courts and dedicated IPR tribunals. In 2017, China paid 28.6 billion US dollars worth of IPR royalty, a 15-fold increase from 2001 when China joined the World Trade Organization. Third, the so-call "forced technology transfer". The Chinese government did not make this kind of request to foreign companies, and cooperation between Chinese and foreign companies in technology and other economic and trade field is contract behavior purely based on voluntary principle. Both sides have reaped huge benefit from the cooperation over the years. Fourth, "Made in China 2025" and other industrial policies. Under market economy conditions, these policies implemented by the Chinese government are guiding documents in nature, and are open to all foreign-funded companies. The irony is that the country providing massive trade subsidy in agriculture and manufacturing happens to be the United States itself.

二、美方指责中方漠视中美经贸分歧、没有进行积极应对,是不符合事实的。美方声称“一直耐心地”对中方做工作,而中方置之不理。事实上,中方始终高度重视双方存在的经贸分歧,从维护中美经贸合作大局出发,从满足中国人民日益增长的美好生活需要和推动中国经济高质量发展要求出发,一直在以最大诚意和耐心推动双方通过对话协商解决分歧。仅今年2月至6月,中方就与美方进行了四轮高级别经贸磋商,并于5月19日发表《中美联合声明》,就加强双方经贸合作、不打贸易战达成重要共识,但美方出于国内政治需要,反复无常、出尔反尔,竟公然背弃双方共识,坚持与中方打一场贸易战。中方为避免经贸摩擦升级尽了最大的努力,事情发展到今天这一步,责任完全在美方。

II. The United States' accusations that China neglects differences in trade and has not taken active measures are not true.

The United States claims that it has "patiently urged China" and that China ignored the US request, but the truth is that trade differences have always been an important issue to China, who has been promoting the resolution of differences through dialogue and consultations with maximum sincerity and patience, with the hope to protect China-US trade and economic cooperation, satisfy the growing needs for a better life of the Chinese people, and promote quality growth of the Chinese economy. From February to June this year alone, China engaged in four rounds of high-level economic talks with the United States, and has announced the China-US Joint Statement with important consensus reached on strengthening trade and economic cooperation and avoiding a trade war. But due to domestic politics, the United States has gone back on its words, brazenly abandoned the bilateral consensus, and insisted on fighting a trade war with China. China has done its utmost to prevent the escalation of trade frictions. The United States is fully responsible for the current situation.

三、美方指责中方反制行动没有国际法律依据,其实恰恰是美方单方面发起贸易战没有任何国际法律依据。2017年8月,美方不顾中方和国际社会反对,单边对华发起301调查。2018年3月,美国炮制出所谓301调查报告,不顾征求意见中高达91%的反对声音,于7月6日对中国340亿美元输美产品加征25%关税。7月11日,美国变本加厉,公布拟对中国2000亿美元产品加征关税的清单。美国301调查既在国内法项下违反其总统向国会作出的行政声明,又在国际法项下违反其在1998年欧盟诉美世贸争端案中作出的承诺。美国的征税措施公然违反世贸组织最惠国待遇基本原则和约束关税义务,是典型的单边主义、贸易保护主义、贸易霸凌主义,是对国际法基本精神和原则的公然践踏。

III. The United States accused China's countermeasures have no international legal basis, but in fact it is the US unilateral initiation of a trade war that has no international legal basis at all.

In August 2017, the United States unilaterally launched the Section 301 investigation against China despite opposition from China and the international community. The United States released a Section 301 investigation report in March 2018 and imposed 25 percent tariff on 34 billion US dollars of Chinese exports to the United States on July 6 in disregard of 91-percent opposition in the comments it received. On July 11, the United States further escalated the situation by announcing a tariff list of Chinese products worth 200 billion US dollars. Domestically, the 301 investigation runs counter to the US President's Statement of Administrative Action approved by Congress; internationally, it has violated its commitment made in the resolution of the GATT trade dispute with the European Community in 1988. The tariffs are typical unilateralism, protectionism and trade bullying. They are a clear violation of the basic WTO principle of most-favored-nation treatment as well as the basic spirit and principles of international law.

四、中方被迫采取反制行动,是维护国家利益和全球利益的必然选择,是完全正当、合理合法的。对于美方一再发出的贸易战威胁,中国政府反复申明“不愿打、不怕打、必要时不得不打”的原则立场。中方坚持不打第一枪,但在美方率先打响贸易战的情况下,被迫采取了对等反制措施。中方这么做,完全是为了捍卫国家尊严和人民利益,捍卫自由贸易原则和多边贸易体制,捍卫世界各国的共同利益。中国政府已经将美国单边主义行为诉诸世贸组织争端解决机制。中国政府针对美国单边做法所造成的紧急情况,被迫采取相应的双边和多边应对措施,完全符合国际法的基本精神和原则。

IV. That China was forced to take counteractions is an inevitable choice to defend national interests and global interests, and is perfectly rightful, reasonable and lawful.

In facing repeated threats of a trade war by the United States, the Chinese government repeatedly stated its principled position of "not wanting a trade war, not being afraid of one, and having to fight one when necessary". The Chinese side insisted on not firing the first shot, and was forced into taking reciprocal countermeasures after the United States first started the trade war. China did this entirely for defending its national dignity and people's interests, defending the principles of free trade and the multilateral trading system, and defending the common interests of the countries across the world. The Chinese government has already taken the unilateralist actions of the United States to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism of the WTO. The Chinese government's measures, both bilateral and multilateral, to respond to the emergent situations resulting from the US unilateral actions are in full compliance with the fundamental spirit and principles of international law.

五、美国打贸易战不仅针对中国,还以全世界为敌,将把世界经济拖入危险境地。美方打着“美国优先”旗号,以一己之私,随意“退群”,四面树敌,不仅以知识产权为名对中国发起301调查,还以国家安全名义对全球主要经济体发起232调查,针对钢铁、铝、汽车等重要产业制造贸易摩擦。目前,已有多个世贸成员对美国采取反制措施,并将美诉诸世贸组织争端解决机制。可以说,美方发起的这场经济史上规模最大的贸易战,不是中美之间的贸易战,而是一场全球范围的贸易战。美国这么做,将会把世界经济带入“冷战陷阱”“衰退陷阱”“反契约陷阱”“不确定陷阱”,会严重恶化全球经贸环境,戕害全球产业链和价值链,阻碍全球经济复苏,引发全球市场动荡,殃及世界上众多的跨国公司和普通消费者利益。

V. The United States is not only launching a trade war with China, but also with the whole world, dragging the world economy into danger.

When the United States willfully exits from groups based on its own interests under the pretext of "American First", it becomes an enemy to all. It not only initiates the 301 investigation against China based on IPR, but also launches the 232 investigation against key global economies in the name of national security and creates trade frictions in steel, aluminum, automobile and other key industries. At present, many WTO members have already taken countermeasures against the United States and requested consultations with the United States under the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. It is fair to say that this largest trade war in the economic history launched by the United States is not a trade war between the United States and China, but a global trade war. Such US practices will drag the world economy into the "cold war trap", "recession trap", "anti-contract trap" and "the trap of uncertainty", seriously worsen global economic and trade environment, destroy global industrial chain and value chain, hinder global economy recovery, trigger global market fluctuations and hurt the interests of numerous multinationals and average customers in the world.

六、中方将继续按照既定部署和节奏,坚定不移地推动改革开放,并与世界各国一道,坚定不移地维护自由贸易原则和多边贸易体制。今年是中国改革开放40周年,过去40年中国经济高速增长靠的是改革开放,未来推动经济高质量发展仍然要靠改革开放。不管外部环境发生什么变化,中国政府都将坚持发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,保护产权和知识产权,发挥企业家的重要作用,鼓励竞争、反对垄断,继续推动对外开放,创造有吸引力的投资环境,坚定支持经济全球化,坚定维护国际经贸体系,与世界上一切追求进步的国家共同发展、共享繁荣。

VI. China will continue to firmly push ahead with reform and opening according to the plans and pace that are set, and work with the rest of the world to firmly uphold free trade and the multilateral trading system.

This year marks the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening-up. Its high-speed economic growth in the past four decades hinged upon reform and opening-up, so will high-quality growth in the future. No matter how things change outside, the government of China will stay determined to let the market play a decisive role in resource allocation, protect property rights and intellectual property rights, give play to the major role of entrepreneurs, encourage competition and oppose monopoly, continue with opening-up, create an attractive business climate, provide solid support for economic globalization, safeguard international trade and economic system, and grow and prosper with all countries in the world that seek progress.

(来源:新华网,编辑:Helen)